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This post "buy cheap jintropin online" is the last of three leading up to Earth Week in which I compare the human related causes of Bestellen Cialis bird mortality. Much of this information comes from a 2013 volume of the journal, Avian Conservation Ecology, wherein these various sources of bird mortality are assessed for Canada. The proximity of Canada to Maine makes the Canadian findings relevant to bird impacts in our state.

The effect of wind turbines on bird mortality, described in the previous column, is always a hot button topic. Not surprisingly, I received emails on the one hand dismissing wind turbines as a significant risk to birds. Others wrote to claim the reported deaths are vastly underestimated because the correction factors for unfound carcasses and removal by scavengers are too low and that the bird mortality studies are conducted by biologists hired by the wind power companies.

As a long term opponent to wind turbines on mountain ridges, I am at least heartened that the wind industry acknowledges wind turbines can pose a significant threat to birds and bats. A consortium of wind power companies in Norway is experimenting with putting black stripes or stripes that reflect ultraviolet wavelengths (birds can see those wavelengths but humans cannot) to mitigate White tailed Eagle deaths (55 since 2005) at one site.

Yes, there is uncertainty about how many birds die from wind turbine collisions. But even the highest reasonable estimates of that bird mortality pale in comparison to two other sources of bird deaths.

The second most important cause is collisions with building windows. Craig Machtans and colleagues used some field data and some modeling to estimate "Anadrol 50" this source of avian mortality. They calculate that about 25 million birds are killed annually in Canada from window collisions. One might think that tall buildings would be the deadliest structures but only about 1% of collision related deaths occur at this type of building. Collisions with house windows are responsible for 90% of the mortality. The remaining deaths occur from collisions at low rise commercial or institutional buildings. The importance of houses stems from the fact there are far more houses than other types of buildings.

The reasons for these collisions are two fold. Sometimes birds strike clear glass when a breezeway or other narrow glassed in structure is in their flight path. The birds think they can fly directly through the transparent glass. At other times, birds strike reflective glass when they are trying to reach vegetation or the sky reflected in the glass. Houses with bird feeders have more window kills because of our feeding stations attract so many birds.

I wrote a column in 2009 that offered suggestions for reducing window collisions at your home. Peter Blancher in his article estimates that between 100 and 350 million birds per year are killed by cats. The majority of this predation stems from feral cats (cats that live their entire lives apart from humans). Canadians own about 8.5 million pet cats. The feral cat population lies somewhere between 1.4 to 4.2 million additional cats.

Blancher finds that between 2 and 7 percent of birds in Canada die each year from cat predation. When you realize that many birds live to be several years old and some live much longer than that, a 2 7% reduction per year is huge.

About 70% of pet cats spend some time outdoors and hence contribute to bird mortality. "Oxandrolone Powder India" Blancher's work suggests urban cats account for about one sixth of cat related bird deaths. Feral cats make up roughly 25% of Canadian cats but cause 59% of the cat related bird deaths. The remaining bird mortality comes from pet cats in rural areas.

[First published on April 27, 2014]

This column is the second of three leading up to Earth Day in which I describe the human related causes of bird mortality. Much of this information comes from a 2013 volume of the journal, Avian Conservation Ecology wherein these various sources of bird mortality are assessed for Canada.

Keith Hobson and colleagues evaluated the impact of industrial forest harvesting and management on avian mortality. These industrial forest practices have two major effects: destruction of nests and elimination of suitable habitat. Hobson calculated that between 600,000 and two million nests are destroyed each year by log cutting. Habitat destruction is harder to quantify because birds in older growth forests like Swainson's Thrushes, Scarlet Tanagers and Blackburnian Warblers may be replaced by Chestnut sided Warbler, Mourning Warblers and Lincoln's Sparrows in cut over areas.

Farming practices take a toll on bird populations. Mowing, tilling, seeding and harvesting in agricultural fields may destroy nests or reduce suitable breeding habitat. Joerg Tews and colleagues provided estimates of mortality from agricultural activities of some grassland species in Canada. They estimated that 138,000 Horned Larks, 249,000 Savannah Sparrows, 667,000 Bobolinks, and nearly a million Savannah Sparrows meet their demise from agricultural practices.

Christine Bishop and Jason Brogan summarized data on birds killed by automobile collisions on roads passing through a variety of forested and unforested habitats. Each year, 1,167 bird carcasses are found along every 100 km (about 62 miles) of road. The revised estimates suggest that nearly 3,500 birds are killed each year for every 100 km. Extrapolated to include all of the roads in Canada, nearly 14 million birds die from collisions with automobiles.

Ryan Zimmerling and colleagues provided estimates of avian mortality from "Buy Cheap Jintropin Online" collisions with wind turbines. Their estimate was based on carcass searches at 43 wind farms in Canada. A carcass count underestimates the mortality because scavengers remove some of the carcasses before a researcher can find them, some carcasses will be overlooked by researchers and some carcasses fall beyond the search area. Applying Mesterolone Antidepressant a correction factor, Zimmerling estimates that eight birds on average are killed by turbine collisions each year. The range of effects varied from no birds to 27 birds killed by each turbine. Turbine collisions account for about 23,000 bird deaths across Canada. Birds seem to be better at avoiding wind turbines than bats. Reducing bat mortality from turbine collisions is proving more difficult than reducing avian collisions. See this recent New York Times article.

Zimmerling and colleagues also considered the effect of habitat loss from wind turbine construction and maintenance on breeding birds. They estimate that 5,700 nests are lost each year across Canada due to this habitat loss. With wind farms predicted to increase ten fold in the next decade, look for a ten fold increase in this type of mortality.

Joanne Ellis and colleagues assessed the impact of offshore gas and oil production on bird mortality. They found that between 2,700 and 46,000 birds die each year in Canadian marine waters as a part of the by catch. In other words, diving birds get tangled in nets and drown. The estimated mortality from these effects is modest: 200 to 4,500 birds year.

Van Wilgenburg and colleagues provided comparable mortality estimates for land based fuel exploration and extraction. Human related activities leading to bird mortality include seismic exploration, habitat loss from the creation of pipelines and the mining processes themselves. Their estimates for all of these effects range from 10,000 to 41,000 birds killed each year. Since Maine abuts Canada, the Canadian research has broad applicability to Maine. I will devote the next three posts to a discussion of some of the papers as Earth Day approaches.

A variety of human or human enabled impacts result in significant bird deaths or injury. These impacts are usually additive to natural deaths. In other words, the human related factors caused the demise of birds that would have otherwise survived. The value of the work published in the ACE special issue is that the relative importance of the various human impacts is evaluated. These rankings will allow conservationists and environmental managers to most effectively target their efforts and resources to reduce bird mortality stemming from human direct and indirect effects.

In Masteron Cutting Canada, several billion birds of over 400 species nest each year. These birds breed in a broad range of habitats, each of which may have its own particular human related threats.

Sbastien Rioux and colleagues examined the importance of collisions with transmission lines on bird mortality. Getting accurate estimates of this impact is difficult because of the dearth of studies and the certain underestimate of mortality because some of the birds killed by collisions are scavenged by foxes and other animals before they can be found and counted by researchers. Is Testosterone Propionate A Controlled Substance